The level of job satisfaction and effectiveness of every human depends upon an appropriate organization structure; as organization structure is the prescribed pattern of work-related behavior that are deliberately established for the accomplishment of organizational goals. During the last decade, quite a lot of discussions have taken place in the corporate world, about organizational structure, and a lot of organizational success and job satisfaction by the employee are attached to the structure that is in place.
Organizations do have goals and objectives to achieve and could be better coordinated through a formalized procedure. For organization to achieve its goals and objectives, the work of such organization has to be divided among its members. Some structure is necessary to make possible the effective performance of key activities and to support the effort of staff, structure provide the framework of an organization and its pattern of management. It represents a formalized framework within which management operates. It is by means of organization structure that the purpose and work of the organization can be carried out. The workers that carried out the organizations work and purpose can only perform well where their satisfaction is adequately taken care of. It is therefore evident that for organization to realize its objectives, job satisfaction of the workers need to be considered. According to Blum and Nylor (1998), job satisfaction is a general attitude formed as a result of specific job factors, individual characteristics and relationships outside the job.
Organization structure refers to the arrangement of task, interrelations of various departments and levels of authorities to achieve co-operation of efforts, delegation of authority and effective communication along the scalar chain of command. Structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. It shows the hierarchical relationships among members of the organizations. Organizations are not just responsible to customers, but also their employees to the extent their welfare is key organizational progress and sustainability.
Job Satisfaction is a general expression of workers’ positive attitudes built up towards their jobs. Workers maintain an attitude towards their jobs as a result of diverse features of their job, social status that they’ve gained about their jobs and experiences in their job environment. This attitude also be also negative towards work. If the economic benefits, the social status, the job’s own specific characteristics and the job expectation employees hoped, are appropriate for employees’ desires, there is job satisfaction. However, functional organizations i.e. organizational structure based on groups of all the major business functions e.g. production, marketing, finance, personnel etc. is capable of facilitating both the utilization and coordination of resources in the organization and as a result enhances job satisfaction especially in area of promotion and career development- a discrepancy model of job satisfaction. According to the human behavior, people are more interested to work in those companies and service organizations from where they get mental satisfaction. The most widely used factors of employee job satisfaction are work, pay, promotion, environment, supervision and co-workers. Similarly, having adequate work equipment, resources, and training opportunities and an equitable workload distribution–also significantly and positively affect employee job satisfaction.
Andrew and Worall investigated the relationship between aspects of organizational structure and job satisfaction as experienced by personnel employed in nine social service departments in UK. After a series of unstructured interviews from 28 respondents in one authority, interview schedules were used for three distinct groups of 603 respondents in nine organizations: those making executive decisions, those making supervisory assessments and those primarily concerned with client interaction. The best predictors of organizational structure were dimensions of centralization and formalization which related significantly to job satisfaction. A study conducted by Willem et.al for the relationship between the organizational structure variables, formalization, centralization and specialization, and nurses’ job satisfaction. This allows us to learn whether structural changes can help to improve satisfaction, and therefore nurses’ work quality. Data were collected by questionnaires in a random sample of 764 non-managing nurses in three Belgian general care hospitals. The results support the negative effect of centralization and the clearly positive effects of specialization and formalization on nurses’ job satisfaction. Furthermore, pay is the most important dimension of nurses job satisfaction.
Organizations should design a suitable structure which must begin with some ideas of what the organization is out to achieve (prime purpose of the organization). It can be concluded that managers should bear it in mind that job satisfaction of workers go a long way to determine their productivity, and hence the realization of organizations goals and objectives. So, suitable structures should be put in place to enhance optimum level of job satisfaction. If organization has greatest capital and the best technology and facilities coupled with a good framework within which management operates, but don’t have productive and well satisfied human resources, such organization will not achieve its goal.